New Atomic Model
Subtle Atomics has developed a completely new atomic model that significantly redefines our understanding of atomic and nuclear physics.

The new model has been developed by recognising "wave-particle equivalence". Particles are now identified as waves in "wobbling" circular orbits.

The new model proposes that interactions at the atomic and nuclear level are very much "directional", in contrast to the non-directional interactions typically described in existing models.

The new model is particularly significant as it allows a direct link between atomic nucleus structures and chemical bonding orientations to be demonstrated.

  

Positive 

Negative 
In the new model "positive" and "negative" responses to electric fields are due to differences in electro-dynamic wave structures of particles, rather than being absolute properties of particles. 
  

Need for a New Model

The Rutherford model of the atom (1911), consists of point electron particles orbiting a central nucleus with an attractive force between negatively charged electrons and positvely charged protons in the nucleus.

The Rutherford model has been almost unanimously adopted by physicists for the past 100 years and forms the basis of theories such as quantum mechanics, the standard model and the nucleus shell model.

Despite the many successes of the Rutherford model and associated theories, there still many unresolved inconsistencies between theory and experimental observations which have not yet been addressed.

Various issues with the Rutherford model have been extensively discussed, typically in non-mainstream scientific litterature, such as Infinite Energy Magazine (e.g. Gulko, 2014) and by other authors including Cook (2010) and Mills (2016).

It is clear that there is a real need to improve the current atomic model, but developing a viable alternative has remained a giant challenge for modern physics.
  

Rutherford Atomic Model 

Issues with Atomic Models Based
on Rutherford Electrostatics

  • Point electrons unable to be observed and/or located, (leading to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle).
  • Observed electron orbits for multi-electron atoms are not consistent with expected electrostatic interference between electrons.
  • Completely separate forces (strong and weak nuclear forces) needed to describe atomic processes compared to forces used to describe  macro scale interactions  (gravity and electrodynamics).
  • ​"Point electrons" not consistent with wave-particle duality properties of electrons identified during double slit experiments.
  • No viable detailed structural model of the nucleus has been developed based on  Rutherford electrostatics and/or quantum mechanics, (Cook, 2006). 
  • ​The current nucleus shell model, which proposes that nucleons rotate at very high speeds, is inconsistent with the observed non-uniformity of fission decay products (Gulko, 2014).
  • Extremely high proton-electron fusion energy, i.e. billions of degrees, is inconsistent with Rutherford electrostatics (Aloupis, 2015).
  

"The need for an improved atomic model is clear." 
Alternative Models

A number of alternative atomic models have been proposed, (Gulko, Santilli, Mills, etc.).  

"Classical Physics" based models (e.g. Mills, 2016) have expanded on our understanding of the electron as more than a point entity, but have not yet provided a fully unified solution that can explain the atomic nuclei structures. 

There is still much more to be done to develop a fully valid atomic model.



Successful development of next generation power systems, such as fusion technologies, may well require the development of atomic theory beyond the assumptions of the current atomic models.
Atomic Theory Comparison

The New Atomic Model

Subtle Atomics has developed a new atomic model that identifies particles as waves in "wobbling" circular orbits. 

The new model has been developed by building on the Rutherford model, 20th century quantum physics, classical atomic theory and recent experimental observations.   

The new model is based on the principle of "wave-particle equivalence", adapted from theory developed by de Broglie (1925). Particles are represented as multiple electro-magnetic waves in circular orbits with rotating transverse "wobbles", forming forming toriodal, vortex-like flow-structures (Gulko, 2006). Structures have some similarities to "current loops" proposed by Cook (2010), Jenson (2016), and Mills (2016), but have more complex trajectories with a torsional rotation component.

Nucleons are modelled as stable configurations  of multiple "current loops". Single "current loops" are equivalent to mesons observed in high energy particle physics experiments. 
 exactly adf
​Rotating meson "current loops" create electro-magnetic fluxes.  Flux direction can be simplified as magnetic poles, where the flux flow direction travels from a south pole "source" to a north pole "sink". 

Atomic, nuclear and chemical structures are stable or semi-stable configurations of electromagnetic flux flow dynamics that can typically be approximated by "magnetic pole matching".  

The new model allows both nucleus structures and chemical molecular bonding configurations to be modelled directly from flux interactions. 
  
Copyright S. Brink.

Photons as Electromagnetic Entities

straight trajectories with rotating transverse EM fields
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Electromagnetic Flux For a Covalent Bond (2 electron)
unpaired proton north poles match to electron south poles
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ A Link Between
Particles and Waves?  


The diameter of the free proton is quite similar to the

to the  wavelength of a photon with equivalent energy
to the mass of the proton (938MeV).

Mean charge radius of the free proton, rp  = 0.875 fm1


Free proton diameter = 2 x rp = 1.75 fm


Wavelength of the 938MeV photon = 1.32 fm

Does this support an equivalence relationship between
waves and particles?

Note 1: Experimental values have ranged between  
 0.84 fm and 0.88 fm.​


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Meson Electromagnetic Flux ​​​

"Wobbling" circular", with a torsional rotation component 
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Electromagnetic Flux For Metallic Bonding (1 electron)

unpaired proton north pole -> electron south pole,
nucleus south pole -> electron north pole
Electromagnetic Flux for Non Bonding Electron Pairs 
paired proton north poles match to electron south poles
Nucleus Components
I​​​​​​​n the Rutherford model, nuclei are considered to be comprised of individual, spatially separated protons and neutrons. The new model recognises individual nucleons, but also recognises composite structures, comprised of up to four nucleons, consistent with recent ​​experimental observations (Myers, 2016 and Vassen, 2016).

Nucleon composite size data also indicates that composite sizes may be quantised with respect to the proton size, (refer to text box on right). 

Experimental observations have also provided an indication that nucleons are comprised of sub-entities. For example, high energy proton-proton impact experiments produce mesons which rapidly decay to muons, (Krane, 1988).

Lattice stability calculations in Cook (2010) show a match with meson-meson based nucleon interactions as "strong nuclear force" experimental observations.

Data presented by Stubbs, (2016), is consistent with the proton being having at least one sub-entity with a mass of approximately 100-130MeV.  

The mass of neutral pi mesons (pion O) has been calculated as 135.0MeV, which is close to 1/7 of the free proton mass (Krane, 1988). 

Analysis presented by Tushey (2017) of CERN Fermilab experiments investigating the internal structure of the proton (2009), suggests three concentric shells within the free proton with quantised radii sizes of approximately  0.22fm, 0.44fm and 0.88fm.  


    No. of Nucleons     Radius       Multiple

                    1 (p)             0.84-0.88fm          x1
                    2 (n/p)              2.1fm               x2.5
                    3 (2n/p)          1.76fm1              x2
                    3 (n/2p)          1.96fm1           x2.25
                    4 (2n/2p)        1.68fm 2               x2

​   References:
              1
              2
Myers, L., et alia, 2016
Vassen, W., et alia, 2016
​​Proposed Inverse Rydberg Relationship for
Meson Resonance States
  Observations of resonances during pion (-) production in Krane (1988), show quantised resonances, indicating that pi mesons may exist in a number of different energy states. A relationship between meson energy states may have similarities to the relationship observed for electron excited states. 
​​
Proposed Substructures for Nucleons and Multi-Nucleon Composites
3 mesons, pi, ?, eta, n=1/2  
4 ? mesons, n=1
  <----- resonator
          direction
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Deuterium Nuclei Proton/Neutron Composite
(typically bonding)
Proton
Neutron
Copyright S. Brink.
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Two Neutron Composite

Helium 3 Nuclei
Two Proton/
One Neutron Composite

Alpha Particle
Two Proton/
Two Neutron Composite
​(non-bonding)
References:
Gulko, A. G., 2014, ​​​The Shell Theory of the Nucleus,
Infinite Energy, Volume 117, September/October 2014.
Cook, N., 2010, ​​​Models of the Atomic Nucleus, 2nd Edition, Unification Through a Lattice of Nucleons,  
ISBN 978-3-642-14736-4, e-ISBN 978-3-642-14737-1, first published in 2006.
Aloupis, H., 2015, Is Ether Real? 
Infinite Energy Magazine, Issue No. 124, November/December 2015
​de Broglie, L., 1925, ​​​Recherches sur la théorie des quanta (Researches on the quantum theory),
Thesis, Paris, 1924, Ann. de Physique (10) 3, 22 (1925)
Mills, R., 2016, ​​​​Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics,
self published, available on Brilliant Light Power website
Jennison, R. C.,  2015, ​​On the Fundamental Properties of Matter,
Proceedings on the Second International Symposium on Non-Conventional Energy Technology
Bourgoin, R. 2017.  ​Spinning Universe.  Letter to the Editor,
Infinite Energy Magazine, Issue 131, Jan/Feb 2017, page 4
Myers, S, et alia, 2016, ​​The 3H - 3He Charge Radii Difference, The European Physical Journal Conferences 113:08013 · 
January 2016, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/201611308013
Vassen, W. et alia, 2016, Ultracold Metastable Helium: Ramsey Fringes and Atom Interferometry, Journal of Applied Physics B, Lasers and Optics, Appl. Phys. B (2016) 122:289, DOI 10.1007/s00340-016-6563-0
Stubbs, W., 2016, ​Structures of the Proton, Muon and the Electron
Infinite Energy Magazine, Issue 129, September/October 2016.  
Krane, K., 1988 , ​Introductory Nuclear Physics
Wiley and Sons, 
Tushey, T., 2017, ​Internal Structure of the Proton
Infinite Energy Magazine, Volume 22, Issue 132, March/April 2017
Cook, N., 1978, ​​​Nuclear and Atomic Models, Akamon School, Miyagi, Japan,
International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol 17, No. 1, pp 21-32 
Gulko, A. G., 2016, ​​​​​​The Common Mechanism of Blackholes and Supernovas
Infinite Energy Magazine, Volume 21, Issue 125, January/Febuary 2016.
Brink, S., 2016, Emerging Energy Technologies, Active Photon Photovoltaic,
Engineers Australia Presentation
Brink, S., 2016, ​​Active Photon Combustion and Photovoltaic Systems,
All Energy Conference 2016, Presentation